For all the 3D head scans, we used Artec Space Spider Scanner, which is an industrial 3D scanner of metrological accuracy, to capture high-resolution human heads, faces and ears based on blue light technology, followed by the export of the final 3D model to CAD software.

This scanner has high accuracy of 0.05mm for 3D points and resolution of 0.1 mm for 3D geometry. It ensures long-term repeatability in data capture, since the accuracy rate of the device is not affected by fluctuations in environmental conditions.

Each 3D model has complete and consistent scanning quality on face, neck and ears with fine details.

Yes, neck region is present in all models with same direction and similar length.

All participants were asked to sit upright naturally and stay still during the whole 3D scanning. In the data processing, we used 3D facial landmarks to define the Frankfurt plane, which is a widely used standard reference in head anthropometry, to make head alignment in Artec Studio® and Geomagic wrap® software.

In the 3D data processing, we used Artec Studio® and Geomagic wrap® software to go through processes including data alignment, irrelevant features removal, noise elimination, sharp fusion, mesh simplification, hole filling, mesh smoothing, texture mapping and coordinate system unification to obtain the final head models.

Participants were wearing wig caps to keep their hair tight during the 3D scanning. For people with long hair, we helped them to put the hair in a bun and hold it to the same position and similar direction on the head, so that we can remove the bun in CAD software and regenerate the 3D surface in that area based on the curvatures.

Each scan set includes a generally equal distribution of male and female scans in the age ranges of 18-29, 30-49 and 50-70+. The distribution details are as follows.

Scan set Age 18-29 Age 30-49 Age 50-70+
24 scans set 8: 4m/4f 8: 4m/4f 8: 4m/4f
144 Scan set 48: 24m/24f 48: 24m/24f 48: 24m/24f
312 Scan set 154: 86m/68f 98: 45m/53f 60: 24m/36f